Mumbai, India October 22, 1973
Although we occupy the body, we should acknowledge that it belongs to someone else.

upadrastanumanta ca
bharta bhokta mahesvarah 
paramatmeti capy ukto 
dehe 'smin purusah parah

"Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer, who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul." Bhagavad-gita 13.23

HERE ARE two purusas, or enjoyers. One purusa is the living entity, atma, and the other purusa is the Supersoul, Paramatma. Sometimes the Mayavadi philosophers, or impersonalists, do not distinguish betweenatma and Paramatma. But here it is distinctly explained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead that there are two purusas. One purusa is enjoying the fruits of his activities, prakrti-sthah. Being influenced by the quality of prakrti, material nature, he is sad-asad-yoni-janmasu: he is taking birth in different types and species of life. And the other purusa is upadrasta, the overseer. He simply sees how the other purusa is working. And according to the living entity purusa's karma, or work, the overseer gives the result. The overseer is the witness.

If the living entity purusa works piously, then he gets a certain type of body. Janmaisvarya-sruta-sri. He gets a nice body, born in a rich family or a brahmana family or a scholarly family. He gets opulence, a beautiful body, a good education. These distinctions are there because the Paramatma purusa is observing the activities of the jivatma purusa. According to the individual soul's karma, and according to his desire, the Supersoul gives different types of body.

In another place it is said, isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati [Bhagavad-gita 18.61]: the Supreme Personality of Godhead as Paramatma, Antaryami, is situated in everyone's heart. Bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya [Bhagavad-gita 18.61]: He is directing maya, the illusory energy, to give each living entity a particular type of body, and the living entity is moving with that body.

For example, according to the price, you can get a car. You can get a Rolls Royce, a Chevrolet, a Cadillac, a Ford, an Ambassador, a Jeep. According to your ability to pay for it, you get a certain type of car, and you can travel. Similarly, according to your karma, good and bad, you get a type of body. There are 8,400,000 species of body. You get one of them and suffer and enjoy.

Tatha dehantara-praptih [Bhagavad-gita 2.13]. You have to change your body. Next you can get a cat body or a dog body, a tree body or a demigod body, a Brahma body or a Indra body, an Indian body, an American body, a serpent body, an insect body, a bird body any. There is no guarantee which body you will get. That will be awarded to you according to your karma. Unfortunately, people do not know this. Just like animals, they do not know how to get a better body.

asitim caturas caiva
laksams tan jiva-jatisu
bhramadbhih purusam prapyam
manusyam janma-paryayat

This is a statement from the Padma Purana. Janma-paryayat: by evolution we come to the human form of body, and in the human form of body we have the chance to develop Krsna consciousness. If we do not do that, then we are missing the opportunity.

You shall get your next body according to your karma. But if you become Krsna conscious in this body, and if you try to understand Krsna, then tyaktva deham punar janma naiti [Bhagavad-gita 4.9] after giving up this body, you do not accept another material body. That is the purpose of the Krsna consciousness movement. We are trying to educate people to become Krsna conscious so that they may not have to accept another material body.

Soul And Supersoul

The other purusa described here is Paramatma. We are atma, soul, and He is Paramatma, Supersoul. We are isvara, controller; He is Paramesvara, supreme controller. We are not Paramesvara. We are Brahman, spirit, and He is Parabrahman, supreme spirit.

The Two Souls In The Body

The word param, "supreme," is used. But sometimes men with little intelligence cannot distinguish between Paramatma and atma, Paramesvara and isvara.

Here another phrase is used: bhokta mahesvarah. We are not bhokta, the enjoyer. We are trying to become bhokta, but we are becoming baffled. It is not possible. We cannot become bhokta. We can be the enjoyed, the predominated, but not the predominator. One thing is enjoyed, and the other the enjoyer. The Supreme Lord is the enjoyer. Bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram [Bhagavad-gita 5.29].

Mahesvara, or maha isvara. Maha means great. Isvara means controller. We can control a few men, but the name Mahesvara means that God controls all living entities. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam[Katha Upanisad 2.2.13]. We may be very proud of controlling a factory, a few thousand workers, but we are not Mahesvara. The Mahesvara is Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who in His Paramatma feature is situated in every body. Paramatmeti capy ukto dehe 'smin. Asmin dehe means "within this body."

There are two souls. In this chapter Krsna says, ksetra-jnam capi mam viddhi sarva-ksetresu bharata [Bhagavad-gita 13.3]: "I am also the ksetra-jna." The body is the ksetra, or field, and the soul is ksetra-jna, one who knows about the body. You have your body, and I have my body. I know it is my body, and you know it is your body, just as you know your apartment or your living room. But there is a partner in our body. That is Krsna, Paramatma. I can take care of my body. I am the owner of this body. But Krsna is the owner of all bodies.

The tenant is the occupier, and the landlord is the owner. Similarly, I am the occupier of this body, and Krsna, Paramatma, is the owner of this body. To understand that is knowledge. I am not the owner of this body. Therefore Krsna's name is Hrsikesa. Hrsika means the senses, and isa means the controller. We are claiming, "This is my hand," but this is not my hand. This is Krsna's hand. The tenant may occupy the room, but he is not the owner of the room. The owner is a different person. Similarly, we may occupy this body or any body, but we are not the owner of this body.

As soon as we know, "I am not the owner of the body; I am the occupier of the body," that is knowledge. We are falsely claiming that we are the owner of the body. But we are not the owner of the body. I cannot therefore repair anything. If any part or limb of my body goes wrong, I do not know how to repair it. But Krsna can do it because He is the owner, Hrsikesa.

Hrsikena hrsikesa-sevanam bhaktir ucyate. You have to pay the owner of your apartment. Similarly, we have to serve Krsna for allowing us to occupy this body. That is devotion.

All Krsna's Hands And Legs

It is also explained: sarvatah pani-padam tat. The Supreme Lord has His hands and legs everywhere. How is that? Because your hands and my hands are Krsna's hands. Therefore they should be used for Krsna.

In ordinary understanding, because I think these are my hands I use my hand for my eating, not for others' eating. But actually all hands and legs belong to Krsna and should be used for Krsna. That is called bhakti.If you don't use your hands and legs in that way, that is against the laws of nature.

Krsna, the Supersoul, is anumanta: without His permission you cannot do anything. Because everything belongs to Krsna, how can you use something without His permission? Take, for example, a father and a son, a little child. The child wants to do something and wants permission from the father, and the father gives it. In our childhood I remember that even for going to the privy I wanted permission from my mother. "Can I go?" That is nature. Mother is not restricting me; still, I am asking her permission. "Can I go? Can I go?" I remember it. That is natural. Similarly, we cannot do anything without the permission of the Supersoul within the heart. Therefore He is anumanta.

When we do something wrong, why has Krsna as Antaryami, as Paramatma, given permission? That question may be raised. Because I cannot do anything without His permission, He must give permission for me to do something wrong. That has already been explained.

purusah prakrti-stho hi
bhunkte prakrti-jan gunan
karanam guna-saõgo 'sya

"The living entity in material nature thus follows the ways of life, enjoying the three modes of nature. This is due to his association with that material nature. Thus he meets with good and evil among various species." [Bhagavad-gita 13.22] Krsna can give you permission, but you will have to take the enjoyment and suffering. You insist on getting permission: "I want to do this." And without permission, you cannot do it. Therefore Krsna gives you permission: "All right, do it, but at your risk." Krsna does not want that you should do it, but you want to do it. Therefore He gives permission. Krsna wants us to surrender to Him: sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam [Bhagavad-gita 18.66]. That is His demand. But our demand is different.

"I shall not surrender, Sir. I want to do this."

"All right, do it at your own risk."

But if you follow the instruction of Krsna, then He takes charge of you. Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami. So you do sinful or pious acts and enjoy the effect, but when you follow the instruction of Krsna, there is no such distinction. Your actions are transcendental. That is called Brahman, and it is above the gunas, the three modes of material nature.

mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena
bhakti-yogena sevate 
sa gunan samatityaitan 
brahma-bhuyaya kalpate

Krsna says, "Anyone engaged in rendering service unto Me is not affected by the activities. He is immune from the result of all activities." [Bhagavad-gita 14.26] The same point is made in many places.

If you want to act for your satisfaction, Krsna will give you permission, but you will have to enjoy or suffer the effects. It is very simple to understand. So therefore Krsna is called anumanta, the one who gives permission: "Yes, you can take. You can do it."

Two Birds In A Tree

It is figuratively explained in the Upanisads that there are two birds [souls] in this tree [the body]. One is observing, and the other is enjoying. The observing bird is the Paramatma, Krsna. He is upadrasta: He is simply seeing your activities and giving you the effect. And He is anumanta. What you are doing now, Krsna does not want it. But because you wanted persistently to do it, He gives permission because without His permission, you cannot do it. That is the conclusion.

He is the maintainer. You cannot get anything without His mercy. There may be ample supply of the necessities of life by the grace of Krsna, and there may be scarcity. People are now complaining about overpopulation. There is no question of overpopulation. Krsna is quite competent, able to maintain everyone. But as you become godless, as you become disobedient to the laws of God, there will be restriction. You cannot have the full supply of the necessities of life.

That time has already come. All these rascals, godless rascals, are now suffering. The only remedy is to become a devotee. Krsna is bharta: He can maintain many millions. There is no question of overpopulation. He can maintain. But nature will not supply. Nature will restrict supply if you become godless. Nature is very strong, strict. Daivi hy esa gunamayi mama maya duratyaya [Bhagavad-gita 7.14]. Krsna will restrict the supply.

In this age, Kali-yuga, people are becoming degraded, and the supply will be reduced. There will be no supply of milk. There will be no supply of sugar. That is stated in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. There will be no supply of rice, no supply of wheat. Now you can get these things, either on the black market or on the white market, but the time is coming when there will be no supply. You will be forced to eat beef. Now it is opening here beef shop, big, big beef shop. The time has already come, gradually, and it will increase, unless you take to Krsna consciousness.

kaler dosa-nidhe rajann 
asti hy eko mahan gunah
kirtanad eva krsnasya 
mukta-sangah param vrajet

Kali-yuga is a time of suffering. Being godless, people cannot get a comfortable life in Kali-yuga. And Kali- yuga means godlessness. Mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah [Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.1.10]. Therefore everyone should take to Krsna consciousness to save himself from the onslaught of Kali-yuga, which will increase day by day.

Thank you very much.