Pradyumna: (leads chanting)

sanjaya uvaca
dantva tu pandavanikam
vyudham duryodhanas tada
acharyam upasangamya
raja vacanam abravit
[Gita 1.2]

Translation: “Sanjaya said: O King, after looking over the army gathered by the sons of Pandu, King Duryodhana went to his teacher and began to speak the following words:”

Srila Prabhupada

Prabhupada: Dhatarantra inquired from Sanjaya, kim akurvata: “After my sons and my brother’s sons assembled together for fighting, what did they do?” Dhatarantra wanted the fight to happen and did not want his sons to compromise. That is the kshatriya spirit: “Let my sons and my brother’s sons fight. My sons are one hundred in number and they are only five, so certainly my sons will come out victorious, and then the kingdom will be assured.” Because Sanjaya could understand the feelings of his master, and so in the beginning he says, “Don’t be discouraged. There was no compromise.” And to encourage him, he described Duryodhana as “raja,” so he could at least imagine Duryodhana becoming the king. Of course, in the end he would inform differently. “Yatra yogesvaram harim, my dear sir, do not expect victory. It is not possible. Because Krishna is on the other side. Yatra partho dhanur-dharam, and there is the fighter Arjuna, so it is beyond your expectation of victory.”

So drstva tu pandavanikam [Gita 1.2]. Duryodhana did not expect that the Pandavas would be able to accomplish military strength so nicely because they were bereft of all sources. Their kingdom was taken away, their money was usurped, they were sent into the forest so many tribulations. But the foolish Duryodhana did not know that above all, there was Krishna on their side. That he could not calculate. Therefore when he saw the Pandavas well-equipped with good number of soldiers pandavanikam he was a little surprised: “How they could gather so many soldiers?” So he immediately consulted his commander-inchief, Dronacharya.

Dronacharya was the acharya, or teacher, of both Kauravas and Pandavas. He was the military teacher. When all of them were children, they studied under Dronacharya. Dronacharya was a brahmana, but he knew the military art. Therefore he was appointed teacher for all the boys. But Dronacharya joined with Duryodhana. Bhismadeva joined with Duryodhana. None of them joined with Arjuna. Because Arjuna or Maharaja Yudhinthira was not the king at that time the financial control was not in their hands and these people, the sons of Dhatarantra, controlled government political power. The financial control too was in their hands. So they were giving enough money for maintenance to Dronacharya and Bhismadeva. So both Dronacharya and Bhismadeva felt obliged. Of course, they knew everything. But externally, they felt obligation: “Arjuna, I am getting money from Duryodhana. So in this point of danger, if I do not join him, it does not look well. I am getting financial maintenance.”

Of course, Arjuna did not ask him. Arjuna was satisfied with having Krishna. Krishna also divided Himself. Since it was a family quarrel, He said, “I cannot take part with either side, and even if I side with any of you, I shall not fight. Directly I shall not fight. I may be on your side or that side, but I’ll not fight.” Still, Arjuna was satisfied. So Krishna, in order to satisfy Arjuna, he agreed to become his charioteer. So in this way the battle was arranged, and when Dhatarantra inquired, kim akurvata sanjaya ”What did they do?” Sanjaya said, “Sir, don’t be disappointed. There was no compromise. Your son, immediately upon seeing the military arrangement of the Pandavas, went to Dronacharya to inquire and assess the situation.” Raja vacanam abravit: Duryodhana spoke the next verse.

Pradyumna: (leads chanting, etc.)

pasyaitam pandu-putranam
acharya mahatim camum
vyudham drupada-putrena
tava sinyena dhimata
[Gita 1.3]

Translation: “O my teacher, behold the great army of the sons of Pandu, so expertly arranged by your intelligent disciple, the son of Drupada.”

Prabhupada:The son of Drupada was meant for killing Dronacharya. Drupada Maharaja was not in good terms with Dronacharya. So he performed a yajna to get a son who could kill Dronacharya. That son is Dhantadyumna, whom Duryodhana calls dhimata, “very intelligent. Dronacharya knew that Dhantadyumna is going to kill him. Still, when Dhantadyumna approached Dronacharya to become his disciple, to learn military art, Dronacharya accepted without hesitation. This is the qualification of brahmanas to be liberal: “Never mind, he would kill me in future. But if he has come to me seeking knowledge, I must teach him.” Duryodhana is trying to provoke Dronacharya by pointing out, ”After studying under you, intelligent Dhantadyumna has arranged our enemy’s army just to kill you.” But Dronacharya was duty-bound. After all, everyone must die; nobody will exist forever. So nobody should be afraid of death. Death is inevitable: “As sure as death.” Who can avoid death? So being afraid of death, we should not deviate from our duties, real duty. That is Vedic civilization.

Sanjaya with Dhrtarastra

Pasyaitam pandu-putranam acharya (Gita 1.3): “My dear teacher, just see how many military soldiers are standing there on behalf of the Pandavas, and they have been arranged by your disciple, who is meant for killing you. So just remember.” Duryodhana is trying to say, “You fight so strongly that this boy and the other party may not kill you.” But Duryodhana does not know that death does not depend on military strength or bodily strength. When death will come, nobody can check. Death is God. When Krishna desires that “This man should be killed now,” or “He must die now,” nobody can check. Rakhe Krishna mare ke, mare Krishna rakhe ke: If Krishna desires to kill somebody, nobody can give him protection, no power. And if He wants to save somebody, nobody can kill him. This is Krishna’s protection.

These warriors, like Dronacharya, Bhismadeva and Karna very, very, big, powerful commanders. Arjuna was nothing before them. Parikshit Maharaja compared Arjuna with others in this way: “My grandfather was just like an ordinary fish, and these soldiers, these commanders, were just like timingila.” Timingila is a fish we get information from Vedic literature a very big fish. They swallow up the whales. Timi means whale fish, and timingila means those who swallow whales, just as small fishes get swallowed up. So just imagine how big timingila is. So these commanders Karna, Dronacharya, and Bhisma were compared with the timingila. And Arjuna although very powerful was compared with timi. So Parikshit Maharaja admitted, “It was not possible for my grandfather to win over the battle before these big, big commanders. It is only by the grace of Krishna he was saved.”

So the conclusion is if Krishna saves, nobody can kill; and if Krishna wants to kill, nobody can save. Therefore our conclusion should be that we should always be under the protection of Krishna. Avasya raknibe Krishna this is saranagati, or surrender. Surrender means, “I am surrendering to Krishna with full faith that He is quite competent to give me protection.” This is called surrender. Not that hesitation: “Oh, I will surrender to Krishna, and in case of danger, He may not be able to give me protection.” That is not surrender. With full faith: “Yes, Krishna is so powerful, Krishna is so great, that I am surrendering to Krishna from this day. O Krishna, I have been wandering throughout the universe life after life without knowing my relationship with you. Now, today, I surrender unto you. Kindly accept me and engage me in your service.”

Thank you very much.