Sri Krishna

Some insights into a special name of each Krishna and Arjuna

sanjaya uvaca
evam ukto hrsikeso
gudakesena bharata
senayor ubhayor madhye
sthapayitva rathottamam
sarvesam ca mahi-ksitam
uvaca partha pasyaitan
samavetan kurun iti
(Bhagavad-gita 1.24-25)

Sanjaya said: O descendant of Bharata, having thus been addressed by Arjuna, Lord Krishna drew up the fine chariot in the midst of the armies of both parties. In the presence of Bhīṣma, Droṇa and all the other chieftains of the world, the Lord said, “Just behold, Pārtha, all the Kurus assembled here.”

Spiritual Television

Sanjaya was relating the activities in the battlefield to Dhrtarastra, who was blind. Sanjaya could see everything by a method that was like television, or something higher.

Scientific improvement is happening, but it is on the material platform. Material means gross material and subtle material. Earth, water, fire, air and sky are gross material elements, which we can perceive. Mind, intelligence and ego are subtle elements, which we cannot see. Television is a machine made of gross matter, but it is possible to make a machine of subtle matter too. Such a machine has not yet been invented. But here we see how Sanjaya could see using this subtle matter. Scientists are very much proud of material advancement of science, but they have to make still more advancement. Above subtle matter, within that subtle matter, is the spirit soul. indriyani parany ahur indriyebhyah param manah manasas tu para buddhir (Gita 3.42). 

Seeing God in Person

When we see a person, what do we see? The senses. But we cannot see the director of the senses. The director of the senses is the mind, the director of the mind is intelligence, and the owner of the intelligence is the spirit soul. The intelligence belongs to the soul, and it is coming from Paramatma, Hrsikesa . Therefore this word is used here, Hrsikesa . The intelligence will come from Paramatma. Otherwise we cannot act, just like a child – he has got intelligence, but it is guided by the parent’s intelligence: “My dear son, do like this.” And he does it. Similarly, we have got this mind, intelligence, everything, but that is being guided by the super-intelligence, Krishna . Therefore He is called Hrsikesa .


Once you become purified, you can talk with Hrsikesa , who is within yourself; He is not outside. Although He is in Goloka Vrndavana, in the spiritual world, because He is Krishna , He can remain with you also at the same time, simultaneously. Goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhutah (Brahma-samhita 5.37).

The topmost spiritual planet is Goloka Vrndavana. This is the abode of Krishna , the planet where Krishna lives. But fools do not know what is God. They have no idea what is God. Therefore they have accepted another fool as God.

Material and Spiritual Universes

The universe is covered by several layers. And each layer is ten times thicker than the other. So you have to pierce through the stock; then you reach the spiritual world. The material universe is only one-fourth manifestation of Krishna ’s creation. Ekamsena sthito jagat.

One time a devotee requested Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, “My dear Lord, You kindly take all the living entities to the spiritual world. Be kind enough upon them. And if you think that they are so sinful they cannot be taken, then transfer all their sins unto me.” Upon hearing this, Lord Caitanya smiled and said, “Even if all the living entities get liberated and go back to the spiritual world, what is the loss? This universe is only one fragmental part of the entire material world. It is like a mustard seed in a bag full of mustard seeds.” The Brahma-samhita (5.40) confirms this,  yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-kotisv: there are innumerable brahmanda, or universes. And in each universe there are innumerable planets. And each planet is different from others. In another place (Brahma-samhita 5.48) it is said,yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah: in each universe, there is a controller of the universe, Brahma, who is called jagad-anda-natha, or master of this universe. Because it is controlled by Brahma, therefore each universe is called brahmanda. There are many thousands of universes and millions of Brahmas, many millions of Siva, many millions of Vinnu, many millions of suns. And this is all a part of material creation. Krishna says that the entire material creation is onefourth creation of the Lord – the remaining three-fourths of creation is the spiritual world. And in that spiritual world, the topmost planet is Goloka. 

When you cannot go even to the moon planet, how you can go to the spiritual world and enter into spiritual planets after penetrating all the material coverings of the universe? Therefore it is said, panthastu koti-sata-vatsarasampragamyah (Brahma-samhita 5.34): “Even if you travel at the speed of mind for millions of years, you will not be able to reach the spiritual world.”

God above Ordinary Humans

So don’t consider Krishna to be an ordinary human being. Avajananti mam mudha manunim tanum asritam (Bhagavad-gita 9.11). Because He kindly appears before us just like ordinary human being, don’t think that He is like us. These rascals think, “Because Krishna appeared as a human being, I am also God. Why Krishna alone shall be God?” So we are trying to explain what Krishna is. So our worship is very simple. Govindam adi-purunam tam aham bhajami. We don’t worship ordinary so-called rascals. Govinda’s description is given in the Brahma-samhita. anandacinmaya- rasa-pratibhavitabhih: “He is always in the spiritual world, which is anandacinmaya- rasa, or spiritual bliss.” Spiritual bliss means it is continually going on, but nobody is fed up. Happiness in the material world cannot go on for a long time. Suppose if I give you a rasagulla, and you take it: “Oh, very nice.” And you take another, “Very nice.” And then another, “Nice.” After four or five rasagullas, you will say, “No, I do not want.” Finished. This principle applies to all anandas of this world, including sex life; it cannot be continued. Cinmayananda, or spiritual bliss, however, never ends. It is navanava- yauvana, one after another, new, new, new, new. Just try to understand what this is. Sahajiyas mistakenly accept this material bliss as spiritual bliss. Don’t be sahajiyas. Try to understand according to sastra.

So Krishna is enjoying with His associates – the cowherds boys, the gopis – in Goloka. At the same time, He is within your heart. This is Krishna , Hrsikesa . And He is also within the atom. Andantara-stha-paramanucayantara- stham govindamadipurunam tam aham bhajami (Brahma-samhita 5.35]. Just imagine this: There are so many atoms, and Krishna is everywhere. We have to take such information of Krishna from the çastra. Your eyes should be sastra, not your imagination. Sastra-caknusa. yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya vartate kama-karatah na sa siddhim avapnoti na sukham na param gatim (Gita 16.23): If you give up the direction of the sastra and manufacture your own way, then you will never get siddhi, or perfection, nor happiness, nor the supreme destination. Everything we have to take from the sastra, because we are blind now. Because the spiritual master enlightens the disciple with sastra-jnana, he is called spiritual master. om ajnana-timirandhasya jnananjana-salakaya caknur unmilitam yena tasmai sri-gurave namah 
“I offer my respectful obeisances unto my spiritual master, who with the torchlight of knowledge has opened my eyes, which were blinded by the darkness of ignorance.”
This is guru. Guru means he’ll always enlighten the disciple with the light of çastra. If the spiritual master bluffs the disciple, then he is not spiritual master. Not that he will say, “There is no need of çastra. I am incarnation. Whatever I speak, you must take it.” No, this is rascal. You should immediately reject such a person.

Why Arjuna is Called Gudakesa

So here is sastra, Bhagavad gita. Try to understand the distinction between Krishna and others. Krishna is goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhutah. This atmabhuta is Hrsikesa . He is giving intelligence. The more you become purified, the more you get direct instruction from Hrsikesa . This is the point. So how can you become purified? Purified means no more influenced by the modes of material nature. That is explained: gudakesa. Gudaka means darkness, and isa means master. So if you become master of the material senses, then you become gudakesa. Therefore Arjuna is described here as Gudakesa. Don’t think Arjuna was mistaken. No, he cannot be. How can he be? He is constantly with Krishna . How can he be misdirected? In the Caitanyacaritamrta it is said that Krishna surya-sama maya haya andhakara (Cc. Madhya 22.31). So gudaka means darkness, maya. The darkness and light is there always, side by side. Here is sunlight, here is darkness. Wherever there is Krishna , there is no jurisdiction of darkness or maya.

daivi hy ena guna-mayi mama maya duratyaya mam eva ye prapadyante mayam etam taranti te (Bhagavad-gita 7.14)

You can immediately come out of the scope of maya if you always remain surrendered to Krishna . Just like if you remain always in the sunshine, there is no question of night. Nowadays it is very easy – if you simply keep driving your plane towards the western side, you’ll never get night. Yes, this is practical. Similarly, if you keep always with Krishna , you are gudakesa; you will never get darkness. Maya will not touch you. This is Krishna consciousness. So try to become Gudakesa.

Krishna knows what is your purpose, what you want to do, what is your past, future – everything. Vedaham samatitani (Gita 7.26): “I know everything.” So as soon as Arjuna asked Him, senayor ubhayor madhye ratham sthapaya me ‘cyuta, immediately He carried out the order and He knew what Arjuna wanted. Arjuna wanted to see, “With whom I have to fight, my friends and relatives.” He was hesitating to fight the war. One may ask, “Arjuna is Gudakesa. How come Arjuna came under the influence of ignorance? He is above this material world. How he is being affected by his socalled relatives and kinsmen?” One of Arjuna’s arguments not to fight was, “They are my relatives. They are my kinsmen. They are my family members.” Krishna knew that Arjuna was infected with mundane family affection. So how did he get affected, despite being Gudakesa? By Krishna ’s desire, Arjuna is playing the part of an ordinary man. Otherwise, how could Bhagavad-gita be spoken? Krishna does talk or fight with ordinary persons. Even the demons like Hiranyakna and Hiranyakasipu were originally Jaya and Vijaya in the Vaikuntha world. Before they came here, Krishna asked them, “If you become My enemy, then within three births you will come back. And if you remain friend, then seven births.” So they preferred, “Oh, we shall become Your enemies, Sir, so that we can come back again after three births.”

Krishna has all the propensities that we find in ordinary people. Just like we sometimes wish to fight, Krishna also sometimes wishes to fight, mock fight. But in the Vaikuntha world there cannot be any fight. Because Krishna wanted to exercise His fighting spirit, He sent His devotee. He became enemy and He fought. So you have to understand Krishna in that way, as Hrsikesa . He knows that unless Arjuna becomes affected familywise, how can the Bhagavad-gita be spoken? Therefore although Gudakesa, Arjuna, is above darkness, still, by the will of Krishna , Hrsikesa , he played just like an ordinary man, affected with his family affection. Therefore Krishna in the next verse said, “My dear Partha, here is Bhisma, Drona, and many other kings – all descendants of Kuru dynasty, Dhrtarastra ’s sons. See them nicely and be prepared to fight with them.” So this is the explanation of Hrsikesa and Gudakesa.

Thank you very much. Hare Krishna .